Salmonella bacteria (Salmonella) is one of the micro-organisms and unicellular microscopic size, are found in the intestines of animals and humans . Transmitted from the feces of infected humans or animals to humans or other animals sound . Includes a Salmonella more than 2,300 strain has the ability to infect humans and animals , but the common ones in perpetuating the disease is confined to a number of breeds most important strain of Salmonella Tivimorim ( causing fever Altyvoid ) (Salmonella typhimurium) and Salmonella Antrytds (Enteritidis Salmonella) where constitute almost half of the human infections Salmonella infection , strains that show symptoms of the disease in animals can cause the disease to humans , and vice versa .
Known disease or salmonella infection in 100 years or more , and discovered by an American scientist named Dr. Daniel Salmon .
Sources of salmonella bacteria :
Salmonella bacteria live in the gut of humans and animals and birds, which spread to the meat , tools and hands during slaughter and what followed from trading operations . It occurs usually after eating human meat and other foods contaminated . Can this type of bacteria to stay alive if the product is not contaminated by stewed or did not reach the internal temperature during cooking to safe level . The food may be exposed to salmonella bacteria when they are traded by people who have no interest in general hygiene and cleanliness of their hands after using the toilets in particular. Among the most serious types of injuries pollution caused by mixing some liquids separated from poultry meat is cooked with food ready to eat , so it is always advised to wash hands with soap and water to those who deal with food and especially people with diarrhea or even dealing with reptiles , birds, even if the animals were healthy and did not showing symptoms of the disease .
The most important food -carrying Salmonella :
As mentioned every raw food is " cooked " such as meat , poultry, eggs and food containing eggs , mayonnaise, dairy products ( cheese , fresh , ice cream , milk powder , etc. ..) , seafood, fruits and vegetables may carry salmonella bacteria , and the main reason why these foods vector for these bacteria the cause of the infection by not dealing with it in a healthy and safe , from processing and preparation through to the stage of cooking, which should be with the temperature has reached the status of food to limit the right to eliminate all phases of live for these bacteria , in addition to that he must be wary lest there be a connection between food that food with raw or uncooked poultry to prevent the transmission of these bacteria and the occurrence of what is known as aqueous pollution .
Symptoms of salmonella infection :
The symptoms of infection with salmonella include fever, abdominal cramps , diarrhea, and appear in a period ranging between 12 and 72 hours after eating contaminated food Palmkrob , there are additional symptoms may appear , such as chills , headache , nausea, vomiting , and wiped These symptoms usually within 4 to 7 days , and many people injured Salmonella infection recover without treatment , without the need to see the doctor . However, it could threaten the salmonella infection lives of infants and young children , pregnant women , the elderly and people with weakened immune systems ( such as those infected with HIV - AIDS - cancer, diabetes and kidney disease ) as these groups are more sensitive because of the weakness of their resistance to infection.
There are a small number of people infected with the bacterium Salmonella may develop pains in the joints, irritation of the eyes and painful urination , and this is what is called Reiter's syndrome (Ritter's syndrome) , which can last for months or many years, and can lead to chronic arthritis which is difficult to treat .
Prevention of Salmonella infection :
There salmonella bacteria in contaminated foods and is not necessary to show signs of corruption as a change in the smell or texture or color . For the prevention of injury Basalmonilla in factories, homes and restaurants or anywhere else should prevent bacteria from growing and multiplying to large numbers , if any , must cook food enough to eliminate the microbe and follow the guidelines for the preparation of safe food as follows:
1 - cleaning and washing hands and surfaces :
· Wash hands with warm water and soap for 20 seconds after using toilets or before preparing food and before eating .
· Must wash utensils and cutting boards and dishes with hot soapy water after each step in the preparation of food .
· Use paper towels to clean kitchen surfaces , preferably wash cloth towels in the washing machine with hot water after each use of a specific period .
2 - Season foods :
· Must be separated uncooked meat , poultry and seafood from other foods in your shopping cart and also in the refrigerator .
· You must use the cutting tools especially meat and poultry differ from hacking tools that are used with other agricultural products , and washed and cleaned after each use to avoid cross contamination .
3 - cooking good food :
Use a thermometer to measure the temperature of the food and make sure cleanliness when measuring the internal temperature of meat , poultry and other foods in order to make sure that the temperature at the center of the food has reached a minimum safe to eliminate salmonella bacteria , which are as follows:
· For beef and veal and lamb 71-77 m ° ( half flush or level too).
· Minced meat 71 m .
· Whole Chicken 82 m ( stuffed or not stuffed ) .
· Chicken pieces 77 m .
· Minced chicken 80 m .
· Fish 73 m .
4 - good conservation of food :
· Must be stored refrigerated and frozen food properly , you must be between the temperature of refrigerators ( 3-5 m) , and freezers ( freezers ) The degree temperature must be below ( - 18 m) .
· Must save food refrigerated at a temperature of not more than 16:00 , and hot food at a temperature of not less than 60 m .
5 - Tsaih frozen meat in an appropriate manner :
Process must be carried Tsaih frozen meat and poultry , either by placing them in the refrigerator for a sufficient period to Tsaahaa Tsaahaa directly or by using the microwave or cooking quick and direct so as to minimize the risk of contamination and the growth of the microbe , and must avoid Tsaahaa at room temperature .
Ensuring the quality and safety of food is necessary and important to maintain the overall health and well is a shared responsibility between regulators and the facilities and food establishments , so it has issued international bodies and local many effective systems to ensure the safety of food through the face of the associated risks , including the risk of becoming infected with salmonella . One of these systems , HACCP and Critical Control Point ( HACCP ) , this system assures food safety along the food chain starting with the stages of preparation , and production and distribution down to the consumer , also confirms that these stages have been ways hygienically safe to ensure the absence of the final product nurses Bacterba Salmonella is the most important .